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Study On Butterfly Diversity And Endangered Mechanisms And Conservation Methods Of Rare Species In Baishuijiang Natural Reserve

Posted on:2004-01-22Degree:DoctorType:Dissertation
Country:ChinaCandidate:X S LiFull Text:PDF
GTID:1100360095950514Subject:Agriculture and Integrated Pest Management
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This study deals with butterfly diversity and assessing endangered species in Natural Reserve of Baishuijiang in Gansu Province. The research includes field investigation, observation at certain time and places, captive breeding in experimental area, capture-recapture etc. The biology of four important butterfly species is studied, especially focusing on the natural population life table, habitats, population structure and mobility of Byasa impediens. The population developing trend and key factor that result population decline and fluctuation of Troides aeacus and Byasa impediens are analysed. Conservation measure are provided.1. Butterfly diversity in Bifeng GullyThis work includes research on a and P -diversity. It appears that the species hi this area are very abundant. There are 180 butterfly species in 30km2, which belong to 12 families and 97 genera. Meanwhile, ?-diversity is also in high level with gradually increasing abundance and diversity when pollution and damage of forestry are decreasing from the mouth to the end of this gully.2. The assessing of endangered degree of some speciesThere are many endangered species in this gully and the critically endangered species include Papilio epycides, Meandrusa scrion, Sasakia funebris.Sasakia charonda, Chilasa clytia ; the endangered species include Papilio alcmenor, Papilio bootes, Papilio polyctor, Byasa plutonius, Chilasa epycides, Chitoria pallas, Jimelaea maculata, Helcyra superba,Stichophthalma howqua, and the vulnerable species include Byasa polyeutes, Pazala tamerlanta, Pazala mandarina, Pamassius latreille, Graphium scopoli, Funis aepope.3. The biology, endangered reason and conservation measure of important species(1) Troides aeacus: univoltine, overwintering as pupae on branch. Male adults fly in late May and females emerge in early June. The adults are seldom found in late July. Female lays its eggs hi mid-June and eggs will hatch in 20 days, larvae feeding on Aristolochia kaempferi from late June to mid-September (about 50-55 days), five instars. From mid-August, larvae become pupae in tree branches or brushes with changeable color based on background. The pre-pupa is about 2 days and pupa is about six months. The male adults can fly higher and faster than females. Adults will visit flowers, mating and find hostplant Aristolochia kaempferi after eclosion. The active time of adults is from 9:00 A.M. to 18:00 P.M., more active from 10-12 A.M. in the morning. The rate of female to male is 1:3.Their favorable flower is Albizzia julibrissin in the early eclosing period, and then change to Aristolochia kaempferi in mid-June, then Clerodendrum bungei after early July.The key factors, which influence the growth of population of Troides aeacus, include habitat loss, abnormal climatic conditions and natural enemies. The loss of habitat results in less hostplants. The hot and dry weather in summer and too much rain in autumn reduce the survival rate of eggs and larvae rapidly. The natural enemies of larvae include spiders, earwigs, wasps, bugs and birds, and pupa ichneumon.The population structure is typical metapopulation (source-sink population) with nine patches. The patch of West Gully and Shanwang-Temple Gully is the source population and the population in these patches is a dynamic process from extinction to reclonizition. The rate of extinction is higher than reclonizition, which indicates the decline of population.(2) Chilasa epycides: Univoltine. They overwinter in pupae and eclose in next late March to Mid-April. Larvae are greenish, five instars, feeding on leaves of Aristolochia kaempferi. The larvae of late instars always array in lines on the leaves exposed to the sun to catch the heat of light, so they are easily to be found and eaten by birds. The pupa of this is brown.(3) Euthalia kardama: Univoltine. They overwinter in elder larvae in the old leaves of palms in late October. The larvae emerge from the leaves in mid-to late- May of next year and feed on fresh leaves of palms. The larvae will become...
Keywords/Search Tags:Baishuijiang, Butterfly diversity, Biology, endangered Mechanism, Conservation Measure.
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