With the rapid development of low carbon economy around the world,the Location Routing Problem considering carbon emissions has been one of the hot topic in the context of freight transportation.As shown in foreign researches,energy consumption caused by transportation accounts for about 90%energy consumption in logistics.Therefore,it is of great valuable in theory and practice for reasonably determining the sets of depots to open and the tracing of the routes to reduce energy conservation and carbon emission.Based on analyzing the theoretical and practical background of Location Routing Problem considering carbon emissions,the mathematical formulas and heuristic algorithms for this project were investigated in this paper.The main research work and achievements are as follows:?1?The principal theory and approaches of low carbon logistics were discussed.Based on the research of computing methods of fuel consumption and CO_{2} emissions,the factors that influence fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions were analyzed and quantified.In this paper,two key factors were considered in fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions,namely the load and travel distance of vehicle,and several formulas were defied in consideration of the property of CLRP,namely,that are single-objective formula of CLRP with carbon emissions,bi-objective model of CLRP considering both carbon emissions and cost and multi-objective formulation of CLRP with carbon emissions,cost and customer satisfaction.?2?As for the algorithms for the projects in this paper,the general characteristics of hyper heuristics and tabu search algorithms were examined on the basis of single-objective CLRP model,and hyper heuristic for single-objective problem and hyper heuristics based on tabu search for multi-objective CLRP formula were developed,respectively.Moreover,in the framework of hyper heuristic,low-level heuristics based on problem domain were constructed,similarly,hyper-level heuristics strategies were developed.?3?For three CLRP mathematical formulations and hyper heuristics proposed in this paper,MATLAB was utilized to program.For solving the single-objective formulation of CLRP consider carbon emissions,the total distance of vehicle slightly increases and the carbon emissions and total cost significantly decrease.In addition,the Pareto optimal solutions set is provided to guarantee diversity of options,which is beneficial for decision-makers to choose the most appropriate plan from the reality.?4?Computational evaluations were carried out on several benchmarks and actual cases.Through the simulation results,have verified the correctness of mathematical formulations and rationality of heuristic algorithms.Moreover,contrastive analyses between hyper heuristic and other typical intelligent optimization algorithms illustrated that the performance of hyper heuristic algorithms significantly outperform others.In addition,the hyper heuristic algorithm has better adaptability for tackling other combinational optimization problems.This study enriches the research of low carbon LRP models and algorithms,and provides supplementary for the theory of low carbon logistics.Meanwhile,the proposed formulations of this paper match the practice better for the integration thought of logistics management.Moreover,the proposed models and algorithms have potential and capacity of providing reference value for logistics companies to provide personalized customized products for low carbon operation. |